Campaign Medal History
Initially issued by states for earlier campaigns to recognize service but not by the federal government.
Congressional awards for campaigns where not announced until 1905 for the Army and 1908 for the Navy/Marine Corp. The first congressional US Campaign medal was for the Union service in the Civil War.
Initial awards were uniquely numbered for traceability up through China Service in 1937.
Initial campaign medals were issued under private contracts with Bailey, Banks, and Biddle and Whitehead & Hoag Company.
Most recent campaign medal is for the second Iraq and Afghanistan Campaigns; est. Nov 2004.
Follows long European tradition of awards for campaigns.